There's no simple cure for discoid eczema, but medications can help ease the symptoms.
There are many different preparations for each type of medication and it's worth taking time with your pharmacist to find the best one for you.
A range of emollient products, soap substitutes and some topical corticosteroids can be bought from pharmacies without a prescription. Some of them are cheaper to buy this way than with a prescription.
Ask your pharmacist for advice on the different products and how to use them. See your GP if your eczema doesn't improve after using an over-the-counter preparation.
There are also some self-help tips that may help to control symptoms of discoid eczema, such as:
- avoiding soaps and detergents, including liquid soaps, bubble bath, shower gels and wet wipes – even if these don't obviously irritate your skin; use an emollient soap substitute instead
- protecting your skin from minor cuts (for example, by wearing gloves) as these may trigger discoid eczema
- taking daily lukewarm baths or showers – using an emollient when washing may reduce your symptoms, and remember to apply your treatments soon afterwards
- not scratching the skin patches – keeping your hands clean and your fingernails short may help reduce the risk of skin damage or infection from unintentional scratching
- making sure you use and apply your treatments as instructed by your GP or pharmacist
See your GP if you suspect your skin is infected. For example, if there's excessive weeping or tenderness in the patches of eczema.
Infection can spread quickly, and the use of topical corticosteroid creams can mask or further spread the infection.
Emollients are moisturising treatments applied directly to the skin to reduce water loss and cover it with a protective film. They're often used to help manage dry or scaly skin conditions such as eczema.
Choice of emollient
Several different emollients are available. You may need to try a few to find one that works for you. You may also be advised to use a mix of emollients, such as:
- an ointment for very dry skin
- a cream or lotion for less dry skin
- an emollient to use instead of soap
- an emollient to add to bath water or use in the shower
- one emollient to use on your face and hands, and a different one to use on your body
The difference between lotions, creams and ointments is the amount of oil they contain. Ointments contain the most oil so they can be quite greasy, but are the most effective at keeping moisture in the skin. Lotions contain the least amount of oil so aren't greasy, but can be less effective. Creams are somewhere in between.
Creams and lotions tend to be more suitable for red, inflamed (swollen) areas of skin. Ointments are more suitable for areas of dry skin that aren't inflamed.
If you've been using a particular emollient for some time, it may eventually become less effective or may start to irritate your skin. If this is the case, your GP will be able to prescribe another product.
How to use emollients
Use your emollient all the time, even if you're not experiencing symptoms, as it can help limit the return of your condition. Many people find it helpful to keep separate supplies of emollients at work or school.
To apply the emollient:
- use a large amount
- don't rub it in, smooth it into the skin in the same direction that the hair grows
- for very dry skin, apply the emollient every two to three hours
- after a bath or shower, gently dry the skin and then immediately apply the emollient while the skin is still moist
If you're exposed to irritants at work, make sure you apply emollients regularly during and after work.
Don't share emollients with other people.
Occasionally, some emollients can irritate the skin. If you have discoid eczema, your skin will be sensitive and can react to certain ingredients in over-the-counter emollients.
If your skin reacts to the emollient, stop using it and speak to your GP, who can recommend an alternative product.
Emollients added to bath water can make your bath very slippery, so take care getting in and out of the bath.
To treat the patches of discoid eczema, your GP may prescribe a topical corticosteroid (applied directly to your skin) to reduce the inflammation.
Choice of topical corticosteroid
There are different strengths of topical corticosteroids that can be prescribed depending on the severity of your eczema. Discoid eczema usually needs a stronger type of corticosteroid than other types of eczema.
You might be prescribed a cream to be used on visible areas, such as face and hands, and an ointment to be used at night or for more severe flare-ups.
How to use topical corticosteroids
When using corticosteroids, apply the treatment accurately to the affected areas. Unless instructed otherwise by your doctor, follow the patient information leaflet that comes with the corticosteroid.
Don't apply the corticosteroid more than twice a day. Most people only have to apply it once a day.
To apply the topical corticosteroid, take the following steps:
- apply your emollient first and ideally wait around 30 minutes before applying the topical corticosteroid, until the emollient has soaked into your skin
- apply a good amount of the topical corticosteroid to the affected area
- use the topical corticosteroid until the inflammation has cleared up, unless otherwise advised by your GP
Speak to your prescriber if you've been using a topical corticosteroid and your symptoms haven't improved.
Topical corticosteroids may cause a mild and short-lived burning or stinging sensation as you apply them. In rare cases, they may also cause:
- thinning of the skin
- changes in skin colour
- acne (spots)
- increased hair growth
Most of these side effects will improve once treatment stops.
Generally, using a stronger topical corticosteroid, or using a large amount of topical corticosteroid, will increase your risk of getting side effects. You should use the weakest and smallest amount possible to control your symptoms.
If you have a severe flare-up, your doctor may prescribe corticosteroid tablets to take for up to a week.
If corticosteroid tablets are taken often or for a long time, they can cause a number of side effects, such as:
For this reason, your doctor is unlikely to prescribe repeat courses of corticosteroid tablets without referring you to a specialist.
If your eczema becomes infected, you may also be prescribed an antibiotic.
If you have an extensive area of infected eczema, you may be prescribed an antibiotic to take by mouth. This is most commonly flucloxacillin, which is usually taken for one week.
If you're allergic to penicillin, you might be given an alternative such as clarithromycin.
If you have a small amount of infected eczema, you'll normally be prescribed a topical antibiotic, such as fusidic acid. This means the medicine is applied directly to the affected area of skin, in the form of an ointment or cream.
Some topical antibiotics are available in creams or ointments that also contain topical corticosteroids.
Topical antibiotics should normally be used for up to two weeks as necessary.
Antihistamines are a type of medicine that work by stopping the effects of a substance in the blood called histamine. Your body often releases histamine when it comes into contact with an irritant. Histamine can cause a wide range of symptoms, including sneezing, watery eyes and itching.
Antihistamines may be prescribed during flare-ups of discoid eczema to cope with the symptom of itching, particularly if it's interfering with your sleep. However, they won't treat the damaged skin.
Many older types of antihistamines can make you drowsy, which can be useful if your symptoms affect the quality of your sleep. Otherwise, ask your pharmacist or GP to recommend one of the more modern "non-sedating" antihistamines.
Some people may find complementary therapies, such as herbal remedies, helpful in treating eczema, but there's little evidence to show these remedies are effective.
If you're thinking about using a complementary therapy, speak to your GP first to ensure the therapy is safe for you to use. Make sure you continue to use other treatments your GP has prescribed.
If the treatments prescribed by your GP aren't successfully controlling your symptoms, they may refer you for assessment and treatment by a dermatologist (specialist in treating skin conditions).
Further treatments that may be available from your dermatologist include:
- phototherapy – where the affected area of skin is exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light to help reduce inflammation
- bandaging – where medicated dressings are applied to your skin
- immunosuppressant therapy – medicines that reduce inflammation by suppressing your immune system